The Sphingidae of Southeast-Asia    


(incl. New Guinea, Bismarck & Solomon Islands)                                                   Back to start page           


by Jan Beck & Ian J. Kitching   





Literature cited on the website:

Brechlin, R. & Melichar, T. 2006. Sechs neue Schwärmerarten aus China (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae). Nachrichten des entomologischen Vereins Apollo, 27: 205-213.

Hall, R.  &  Holloway, J. D. (eds). 1998. Biogegraphy and Geological Evolution of South East Asia. Leiden: Backhuys. [also available online]

Holloway J. D. 2003. Biological images of geological history: through a glass darkly or brightly face to face? Journal of Biogeography, 30: 165-179.

Holloway, J. D. 1987. Lepidoptera patterns involving Sulawesi: what do they indicate of past geography? in Withmore T. C. (ed.) . Biogeographical evolution of the Malay archipelago. Claredon Press, Oxford: p 103-118.

Kitching I. J. & Cadiou J.-M. 2000. Hawkmoths of the world. The Natural History Museum, London. Cornell Univ. Press, London.

Monk K. A., de Frete Y., Reksodiharjo-Lilley G. 1997. The ecology of Nusa Tanggara and Maluku. The Ecology of Indonesia series V. Periplus Editions Ltd., Hong Kong.

Quinn R. M., Gaston K. J. & Roy D. B. 1997. Coincidence between consumer and host occurrence: macrolepidoptera in Britain. Ecological Entomology, 22: 197-208.

Quinn R. M., Gaston K. J. & Roy D. B. 1998. Coincidence in the distributions of butterflies and their foodplants. Ecography, 21: 279-288.

Rosenzweig M. L. 1995. Species diversity in space and time. Cambridge University Press, Camebridge.

Voris H. K. 2000. Maps of pleistocene sea levels in Southeast Asia: shorelines, river systems and time durations. Journal of Biogeography, 27: 1153-1167.

Wallace A. R. 1869. The Malay Archipelago. Oxford in Asia Hardback Reprints (1986), Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Whitmore T. C. (ed.) 1987. Biogeographical evolution of the Malay archipelago. Claredon Press, Oxford (147 p).


Not cited, but frequently used as source of geographical reference while working on this website:

The Times Atlas of the World (10th ed.). 1999. Times Books Group Ltd.. Crown Publishers, New York.


Literature data sources (see also Creation of range maps):

Aguiar, A.M.F. & Karsholt, O. 2006. Systematic catalogue of the entomofauna of the Madeira archipelago and Selvagens Islands. Lepidoptera. Vol. 1. Boletim do Museu Municipal do Funchal,(Suppl. 9): 5-139.

Al-Houty, W. 2000. Some Lepidoptera recorded from Kuwait. Nachrichten des Entomologischen Vereins Apollo, (N.F.) 22: 109-111.

Allen, M.G. 1993. Marvellous moths of Nepal. [The Sphingidae (Hawk Moths), Saturniidae (Atlas, Lunar and Emperor Moths) and Brahmaeidae]. Rohit Kumar, Lashkar (Gwalior), 72 pp. (Know Nepal Series; 6).

Anonymous. 1976. Results of entomological expeditions in agroecosystems 1967-1968. [Ket qua dieu tra con trung 1967-1968]. Institute of Plant Protection [Vien Bao Ve Thuc Vat], Hanoi, 578 pp.

Arnyas, E., Szabó, S., Tóthmérész, B. & Varga, Z.S. 2005. Light-trp surveys of the Macrolepidoptera fauna at the Aggtelek Nation Park. Folia Entomologica Hungarica, 66: 195-206.

Aston, P. & Kendrick, R. 1998. The Oleander Hawk Moth Daphnis nerii (Linnaeus) (Lep.; Sphingidae) in Hong Kong. Porcupine, 17: 13, 15.

Azuma, S. 2005. Moths from Taketomi Island, the Yaeyama Group, Okinawa. Japan Heterocerists' Journal, 236: 197.

Azuma, S. 2006. Moths from Iheya and Izena Islands, Okinawa. Japan Heterocerists' Journal, 237: 212.

Bender, R. 1942. Eine neue Sphingide des palaearktischen Gebietes. (Lep.). Mitteilungen der Münchener Entomologischen Gesellschaft, 32: 649.

Bortolin, A., Fabiano, F., Sforzi, A. & Bartolozzi, L. 1998. A contribution to the knowledge of the Sphingidae of North India (Insecta, Lepidoptera). Nachrichten des Entomologischen Vereins Apollo, (N.F.) 19: 141-148.

Brechlin, R. 1997. Eine weitere neue Schwärmerart aus Vietnam: Callambulyx schintlmeisteri n. sp. (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). Nachrichten des Entomologischen Vereins Apollo, (N.F.) 17: 367-376.

Brechlin, R. 1998a. Sechs neue indoaustralische Schwärmerarten (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae). Nachrichten des Entomologischen Vereins Apollo, (N.F.) 19: 23-42.

Brechlin, R. 1998b. Clanis euroa baratana, eine neue, westliche Unterart von Clanis euroa Rothschild & Jordan, 1903 (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). Nachrichten des Entomologischen Vereins Apollo, (N.F.) 19: 239-246.

Brechlin, R. 2000a. Eine weitere neue Art der Gattung Callambulyx aus China: Callambulyx sinjaevi (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). Nachrichten des Entomologischen Vereins Apollo, (N.F.) 20: 265-270.

Brechlin, R. 2000b. Neue Eupanacra aus China und von den Philippinen, mit Fundortergänzungen zum Philippinischen Archipel (Lepidoptera:Sphingidae). Nachrichten des Entomologischen Vereins Apollo, (N.F.) 22: 71-78.

Brechlin, R. 2000c. Zwei neue Arten der Gattung Smerinthulus Huwe, 1895 (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). Nachrichten des Entomologischen Vereins Apollo, (N.F.) 22: 103-108.

Brechlin, R. 2000d. Ein neue Konzept der Gattung Lepchina Oberthür, 1904 mit Beschreibung von zwei neuen Arten aus China (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). Nachrichten des Entomologischen Vereins Apollo, (N.F.) 22: 143-152.

Brechlin, R. 2001a. Einige generelle Anmerkungen zur Gattung Psilogramma Rothschild & Jordan, 1903 mit Beschreibung neuer Arten (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae). Arthropoda, 9: 6-47.

Brechlin, R. 2001b. Rhodambulyx hainanensis, eine neue Schwärmerart aus China (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). Nachrichten des Entomologischen Vereins Apollo, (N.F.) 22: 145-147.

Brechlin, R. 2002. Eine neue Art der Gattung Lepchina Oberthür, 1904 aus China (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). Nachrichten des Entomologischen Vereins Apollo, (N.F.) 22: 231-234.

Brechlin, R. 2004. Rhodoprasina viksinjaevi, eine neue Sphingide aus China (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). Arthropoda 12: 8-14.

Brechlin, R. 2005. Eine neue Sphingide von Neubritannien (Papua-Neuguinea): Ambulyx rudloffi sp. n. (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). Nachrichten des Entomologischen Vereins Apollo (N.F.) 26: 213–216.

Brechlin, R., Kitching, I.J. & Cadiou, J.-M. 2001. Description of a new species of the genus Polyptychus Hübner, [1819] "1816" from the Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia, with notes on several species of the subtribe Choerocampina (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). Nachrichten des Entomologischen Vereins Apollo, (N.F.) 22: 31-35.

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Cadiou, J.-M. & Holloway, J.D. 1989. Endemic Sphingidae from Sulawesi (Lepidoptera). Lambillionea, 89: 130-158.

Cadiou, J.-M. & Kitching, I.J. 1990. New Sphingidae from Thailand (Lepidoptera). Lambillionea, 90: 3-34.

Cadiou, J.-M. 1988. A new sphingid from Sulawesi: Daphnis hayesi (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae). Lambillionea, 88: 138-143.

Cadiou, J.-M. 1990. A new sphingid from Thailand: Rhodambulyx schnitzleri (Lepidoptera Sphingidae). Lambillionea, 90: 42-48.

Cadiou, J.-M. 1991. A further new sphingid from Thailand: Gehlenia pinratanai (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae). Lambillionea, 91: 66-71.

Cadiou, J.-M. 1993. A new sphingid from continental South-East Asia: Clanis schwartzi (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae). Lambillionea, 93: 445-449.

Cadiou, J.-M. 1995. Seven new species of Sphingidae (Lepidoptera). Lambillionea, 95: 499-515.

Cadiou, J.-M. 1996. Two new species of Sphingidae from South East Asia (Lepidoptera). Entomologia Africana, 1: 15-24.

Cadiou, J.-M. 1997a. Three new taxa in the family Sphingidae (Lepidoptera). Entomologia Africana, 2: 6-16.

Cadiou, J.-M. 1997b. Three further new taxa from Sulawesi in the family Sphingidae (Lepidoptera). Lambillionea, 97: 379-387.

Cadiou, J.-M. 1998. A new species of Ampelophaga from Nepal and northeastern India (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). Lambillionea, 98: 353-358.

Cadiou, J.-M. 1998a. Three new day-flying Sphingidae from Sulawesi (Lepidoptera). Lambillionea, 98(Suppl. 1): 2-6. (The monochrome plate was later published in colour in Lambillionea, 98: 197)

Cadiou, J.-M. 1998b. A new Ambulyx from Sri Lanka, and two new Macroglossum, one from Sulawesi and one from Halmahera (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae). Lambillionea, 98: 441-444.

Cadiou, J.-M. 1998c. A new Sonoran Sphinx and another new Cypa from Sulawesi (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae). Lambillionea, 98: 620-628.

Cadiou, J.-M. 1999. A new Theretra from Halmahera and a new Cephonodes from Sulawesi (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae). Lambillionea, 99: 503-510.

Cadiou, J.-M. 2000a. A new Litosphingia from Tanzania and a new Craspedortha from China (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae). Entomologia Africana, 5: 35-40.

Cadiou, J.-M. 2000b. A new Macroglossum from Sulawesi (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae). Lambillionea, 100: 450-452.

Cadiou, J.-M. 2005. A new species of Acosmeryx Boisduval, [1875] from Sulawesi (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). Lambillionea, 105: 622-626.

Cary, C.R. 1970. A new sphinx moth from the West Indies (Sphingidae). Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society, 24: 267-270.

Chatterjee, S.N. & Ram, R.D. 1970. Occurrence of the Grape Vine Sphinx, Hippotion celerio (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) on Cissus quadrangularis Linnaeus (family Vitaceae) in Poona, India. Indian Journal of Entomology, 32: 392-393.

Chen, H.L. & Huang, S.S. 1990. Meganoton analis, a new pest of Magnoliaceae. Forest Pest & Disease, 1990: 21-22.

Chey, V.K. 1994. Comparison of biodiversity between plantations and natural forests in Sabah using moths as indicators. Ph.D.-thesis, University of Oxford.

Chey, V.K. 2002. Comparison of moth diversity between lightly and heavily logged sites in a tropical rainforest. Malaysian Nature Journal 56: 23-41.

Chey, V.K. 2002. The periwinkle caterpillar (D. nerii). Malaysian Naturalist, 55: 45-49.

Chey, V.K. 2005. Happy Caterpillars. A new record of Cephonodes hylas
on Mitragyna speciosa. Malaysian Naturalist, 59: 44-45.

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Chu, H.F. & Wang, L.Y. 1980b. Lepidoptera: Sphingidae. Economic Insect Fauna of China, 22: 1-84.

Clark, B.P. 1937. Twelve new Sphingidae and notes on seven others. Proc. New Engl. zool. Club 16, 27-39.

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Daniel, F. 1967. 117. Bombyces et Sphinges II. Ergebnisse der zoologischen Forschungen von Dr. Z. Kaszab in der Mongolei (Lepidoptera). Reichenbachia, 9: 201-208.

Daniel, F. 1969. 165. Bombyces et Sphinges III. Ergebnisse der zoologischen Forschungen von Dr. Z. Kaszab in der Mongolei (Lepidoptera). Reichenbachia, 11: 265-277.

Daniel, F. 1970. 200. Bombyces et Sphinges IV. Ergebnisse der zoologischen Forschungen von Dr. Z. Kaszab in den Mongolei (Lepidoptera). Reichenbachia, 13: 193-204.

Daniel, F. 1971. Österreichsche Expeditionen nach Persien und Afghanistan. Beiträge zur Lepidopterenfauna, Teil 16 (3. Beitrag zur Bombyces- und Sphinges-Fauna). Annalen des (K.K.) Naturhistorischen (Hof) Museums. Wien, 75: 651-660.

Danner, F., Eitschberger, U. & Surholt, B. 1998. Die Schwärmer der westlichen Palaearktis. Verlag Dr. Ulf Eitschberger, Marktleuthen (Germany).

Danner, F., Eitschberger, U. & Surholt, B. 2003. Die Zucht von Langia zenzeroides nawai Rothschild & Jordan, 1903 und die Beschreibung aller Praeimaginalstadien (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae). Neue Entomologischen Nachrichten, 54: 57-65.

Darge, P. 1975. Note sur Hippotion brennus (Stoll) [Lep. Sphingidae]. Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France, 80: 179-180.

de Freina, J.J. 1976. Ökologische und zoogeographische Untersuchungen himalajanischer Sphingiden (Lep. Sphingidae). Atalanta, 7: 233-245.

de Joannis, J. 1929. Lépidoptères hétérocères du Tonkin. 2e partie. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 98: 361-552.

Derzhavets, Y.A. 1977. Hawkmoths (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae) of Mongolia. Nasekomye Mongolii, 5: 642-648.

Diehl, E. W. 1982. Die Sphingiden Sumatras. Heterocera Sumatrana Band 1 – Sphingidae.  97 pp.,  E. Classey (now out of sale).

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Dodelin, C. 2000. Les Macro Hétérocères du Marais de Saint-Sulpice-de-Grimbouville (27). Comptes-rendus de chasse 2003 et 2004. Bulletin de Liaison de l'Association Entomologique d'Evreux, 51: 1-17.

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Dupont, F. & Roepke, W. 1941. Heterocera Javanica. Fam. Sphingidae, hawk moths. Verhandlingen der Koninklijke Nederlandsche Akademie van Wetenschappen, (Afdeeling Natuurkunde 2) 40: 1-104.

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Ebert, G. 1976. Beitraege zur Kenntnis der Bombyces und Sphinges Irans. 1. Beitrag: Die Arten und Formen der Gattungen Berutana und Deilephila (Lep. Sphingidae). Journal of the Entomological Society of Iran, 3: 85-98.

Eichler, F. 1965. Callambulyx tatarinovi japonica ssp. n. aus Japan (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae). Reichenbachia, 5: 21-24.

Eichler, F. 1971. Celerio galii tibetanica ssp. n. sowie Bemerkungen zur Art (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae). Entomologische Abhandlungen und Berichte aus dem Staatlichen Museum für Tierkunde in Dresden, 38: 315-324.

Eitschberger, U. 1999a. Zur Verbreitung einiger Hyles-Arten in China 3. Ergänzung zu "Die Schwärmer der westlichen Palaearktis" (Danner, Eitschberger & Surholt, 1998) (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae). Atalanta, 30: 162-168, 397.

Eitschberger, U. 1999b. Zwei neue Schwärmerarten von den Insel Sulawesi (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). Entomologische Zeitschrift, 109: 182-191.

Eitschberger, U. 2000a. Zur Verbreitung von Theretra natashae Cadiou, 1995 mit Beschreibung einer neuen Unterart von der Insel Lombok (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae). Atalanta, 31: 497-503.

Eitschberger, U. 2000b. Eine neue Theretra-Art von der Insel Sulawesi (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae). Neue Entomologischen Nachrichten, 48: 101-107.

Eitschberger, U. 2001a. Revision der Gattung Psilogramma Rothschild & Jordan, 1903 mit der Beschreibung weiterer neuer Arten (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae). Neue Entomologischen Nachrichten, 52: 1-174.

Eitschberger, U. 2001b. Neubeschreibungen von Arten in der Gattung Psilogramma Rothschild & Jordan, 1903 (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae). Neue Entomologischen Nachrichten, Supplement, 1: 1-63.

Eitschberger, U. 2003a. Eine neue Art der Gattung Leucophlebia Westwood, 1847 aus dem Norden Thailands (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae). Atalanta, 34: 209-217.

Eitschberger, U. 2003b. Checkliste aller Taxa der Gattung Acherontia [Laspeyres], 1809 mit der Beschreibung einer neuen Unterart von Acherontia lachesis (Fabricius, 1798), zusammen mit einem morphologischen vergleich der Genitalarmaturen verschiedener Populationen diser Art (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae). Neue Entomologischen Nachrichten, 54: 67-103.

Eitschberger, U. 2003c. Eine neue Sphingiden-Gattung mit einer neuen Art - Ihlegramma gen. nov. ihlei spec. nov. aus Laos (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae). Neue Entomologischen Nachrichten, 54: 105-111.

Eitschberger, U. 2003d. Eine weitere neue Art der Gattung Megacorma Rothschild & Jordan, 1903 von Ceram (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae). Neue Entomologischen Nachrichten, 54: 113-135.

Eitschberger, U. 2003e. Eine neue Meganoton-Art aus Südthailand (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae). Neue Entomologischen Nachrichten, 54: 139-147.

Eitschberger, U. 2003f. Vorarbeit zur Revision der Macroglossum corythus-sylvia-Gruppe (s.l.) (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae). Neue Entomologischen Nachrichten, 54: 149-439.

Eitschberger, U. 2003g. Revision und Neugliederung der Schwärmer-Gattung Leucophlebia Westwood, 1847 (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae). Neue Entomologischen Nachrichten, 56: 1-400.

Eitschberger, U. 2005a. Macroglossum paukstadorum spec. nov. vom Babar-Archipel (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae) Atalanta, 36: 257-263, 408-410.

Eitschberger, U. 2005b. Theretra babarensis spec. nov. vom Babar-Archipel (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae) Atalanta, 36: 264-285, 410-415.

Eitschberger, U. 2006. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Gattung Angonyx Boisduval, [1875] mit der Beschreibung von zwei neuen Arten (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae). Neue Entomologischen Nachrichten 59: 107-166, 420-431.

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Haxaire, J. 1995. Contribution à la connaissance des Lépidoptères Sphingidae du Sabah (Bornéo). Première partie: sous-familles des Sphinginae et Smerinthinae. Lambillionea, 95: 353-362.

Haxaire, J. 1999. Contribution à la connaissance des Lépidoptères Sphingidae du Sabah (Bornéo); 2ème partie: sous-famille des Macroglossinae. Lambillionea, 99: 193-202.

Haxaire, J. 2001. Un nouveau Sphingidae de Malaisie Peninsulaire et de Sumatra: Clanis orhanti (Lepidoptera Sphingidae). Lambillionea, 101: 125-128.

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